Date registered: 17.03.2008
| Created on 18.03.2008 - 21:23|| |
Committee: security Council
Topic: HUMAN SECURITY IN TIMOR-LESTE & GEORGIA – KEY TO STABILITY IN THE CAUCASIAN REGION
Delegate: Mahmoud Momtaz
TOPIC A - HUMAN SECURITY IN TIMOR-LESTE
The island of Timor is situated in Southeast Asia. It has a long history of colonialism and invasions. In 1824 the Treaty of Malacca divided the island of Timor into East and West. The Eastern part was under Portuguese occupation and the Western part under the Netherlands' occupation. During the nineteenth century, East Timor had its own political system, although Portugal strengthened its colonial power in the first half of the twentieth century. In 1942 the Japanese invaded the island of Timor as a whole. East Timor struggled for independence and lost during this struggle many lives and resources. After that the Portuguese forces returned and built up a system for producing agricultural commodities, infrastructure and education system. In 1999 Indonesia carried out violence and invaded East Timor.
On the 5th of May 1999, Indonesia and Portugal agreed for the UN to conduct a popular referendum in East Timor, enabling people to choose between an autonomous status within Indonesia or a transition to independence. On the 30th of August, 78.5 percent voted for gradual independence under the United Nations. Following this, Indonesia started killing civilians and destroying everything. Three years later, on the 20th of May, 2002 East Timor got its independence as the small nation of Timor-Leste and became in September the United Nations’ 191st member.
Russia would recommend:
- Extension of UNMIT’s mandate
- Establishing an Early Warning Prevention System
- Delegating UN peacekeeping forces
- Forming International Criminal Tribunal for East Timor
- The situation in Timor-Leste is indeed a case for recollecting the United Nations Security Council’s tasks to “maintain international peace and security; to investigate any dispute or situation which might lead to international friction; to recommend methods of adjusting such disputes or the terms of settlement; and to formulate plans for the establishment of a system to regulate armaments”, until it has been settled. Only then can it be transferred as a resolved conflict to the Peace-building Commission in completing the process of peace-building and transition.
- Taking the recommendations of the UNDP and UNHCR into consideration.
TOPIC B - GEORGIA – KEY TO STABILITY IN THE CAUCASIAN REGION
After being annexed for long years to the Russian Empire, after several wars and after trials to be independent, Georgia officially declared her independence from the USSR in April 1991. Saakashvili, was elected in early 2004. He is known to be an economic liberal. He supported his country's aim at NATO membership, as well as integration into the European Community. Saakashvili's faced anti-government protests in late 2007, which resulted in re-scheduling presidential elections on January 5, 2008.
Abkhazia is an autonomous republic of Georgia which has long resisted the Tbilisi government's efforts to centralize the political power. Several parties exerted efforts for mediation, until an official ceasefire was signed by both parties in December 1993. About 1700 peacekeeping forces were sent by the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) -according to an agreement concluded in spring 1994- to the region instead of United Nations peacekeepers. The United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG) was established at the same time to oversee both parties regarding ceasefire violations. The Georgian forces were defeated in the War of 1992-93 by rebels of the Northern Caucasus and this has put an end of Georgian control over Abkhaz.
From the point of view of Russia, United Nations’ presence in Georgia is necessary to maintain peace and security and an extension of UNOMIG’s mandate is to be decided.
Mahmoud A. Momtaz